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         The History and The Culture of Chess

Andrei Davidovich Dadiani
July 2005

Monte Carlo, 1903             

Monte Carlo, 1903

           This photograph of  the 1903 tournament at Monte Carlo,
            sent to me by Jan Kalendovský,  first appeared in a
            1902 edition of Oesterreichische Illustrierte Zeitung.

Tournaments were held in Monte Carlo during the winters of 1901, 1902, 1903 and 1904. For the first three tournaments, the co-organizers were Jules Arnous de Rivière and Prince Dadian.  According to the tournament book,  one of the contestants in the 1902 tournament, David Janowski, was involved in a dispute with de Rivière  and as a result refused to participate and, since he indicated that he wouldn't play if invited,  he was never sent an invitation to play in the 1903 tournament. Tschigorin was invited instead but after he arrived after traveling to Monaco from Russia, Prince Dadian objected to Tschigorin playing in this tournament. Tschigorin was compensated 1500 francs, more than the value of the second prize, for his troubles while the Austrian master, Heinrich Wolf, was allowed to play in his stead.

The chess tournament at Monte Carlo, hosted by Prince Dadian and Arnous de Rivière lasted from Feb.10 until March 17, 1903. There were some strange incidents associated with it. The tournament consisted of 14 contestants with each player matched with every other player for two games each (each playing 26 games). Siegbert Tarrasch won first place; Geza Maróczy, second; H. N. Pillsbury, third; Carl Schlechter, fourth; and Richard Teichmann, fifth. However Colonel Moreau earned the dubious distinction of having lost all 26 of his games and placing 14th. The rest :  6. Georg Marco, 7. Heinrich Wolf, 8. Jacques Mieses, 9. Frank Marshall, 10. Jean Taubenhaus, 11. James Mason, 12. Adolf Albin, 13. Arturo Reggio.

Emil Kemeny, publisher and editor of the American Chess Weekly, recorded the happenings at Monte Carlo for his Philadelphia periodical and ran his articles from April 29 to June 18, 1903. Kemeny's articles on Monte Carlo are almost exclusive and even comprise what is considered the tournament book:

From the Monte Carlo 1903 report from The American Chess Weekly


Tschigorin, one of the foremost exponents of the game, was invited to the Monte Carlo Tournament and he accepted. In the various circulars issued by the committee, his name was given as one of the competitors. He started on his long and tedious journey, reaching Monte Carlo in due time,- to be informed that he could not participate. President of the committee, Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, either ordered his exclusion, or intimated that he would not remain president unless Mr. de Rivière bars Tschigorin, and action was taken accordingly.
Soon as the excitement subsided the writer made an effort to obtain the facts leading up to such an extraordinary proceeding. The Prince being requested to give his version of the case, consulted with a member of the committee and then the writer was informed that an account will appear in a British periodical and the same may be placed before American readers. The account reads as follows
"Wednesday, the 11th, being an off day the president, Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, gave a dinner to the officers and players at the Hotel des Princes. The Duke de Dino and Commodore Delbois, two appreciative visitors at the daily rounds, were to support the President, but the Commodore only put in an appearance, the Duke de Dino having been indisposed. The masters being desirous of an early withdrawal owing to the second round the following morning, the host made an effort to let them depart without any exhibition of their skill at the chess board. Since then the tournament has passed off without hitch of any kind: it is, therefore, so much more to be regretted that an incident which occurred before the tournament commenced should have marred the proceedings. As the incident is certain to be ventilated in the press, it may as well be mentioned at once.
"Tschigorin arrived on Sunday, and Wolf some days earlier. It was doubtful whether the latter could be admitted, there would have been fifteen instead of the fixed maximum of fourteen players. But Prince Dadian having intimated a strong aversion to Tschigorin's participation, Wolf was admitted in his place. The two other members of the committee pleaded Tschigorin's cause, whereupon the Prince put the case into a nutshell by declaring that if Tschigorin was admitted amongst the competitors he would withdraw from the presidency and leave Monte Carlo that very day. In the circumstances M. de Rivière had no option but to substitute Wolf for Tschigorin. The Prince's reasons for insisting on the exclusion of Tschigorin were that the latter, in spite of many acts of generosity on the part of the Prince, had shown persistent animosity in the press, articles which the Prince considers injuste et inaigne [unjust and undignified]. These articles will be published in justification of the president's action.
It is hardly conceivable that the Prince, who has won golden opinions amongst the players by his courteous and charming manners should be hostile to a Russian master without just cause, and here the matter rests at present. No doubt Tschigorin will give his version to elucidate the matter. The Prince, as a matter of fact, is willing to indemnify Tschigorin to a reasonable extent" [The Field, February 21,1903 p.301]
It is very true, that the Prince won golden opinions amongst the players by his courteous and charming manners, and altogether the article gives a brief and accurate account. But the writer wishes to take exception to the paragraph having reference to Wolf. The passus is apt to mislead, for the reader may infer, that one of the two experts had to be selected. This was not the case, Tschigorin was accepted and notified, Wolf was not. He filled the vacancy caused by the retirement of the Russian, but his presence had no bearing on Tschigorin's exclusion.
Tschigorin was not able to throw much light on the subject, he has a very limited command of any but the Russian language, and is not aware of having given any cause for the drastic action taken. That much he recalls, that having seen some of Prince Mingrelia's game, where the brilliancy was unsound, he published them with copious notes pointing out how the Prince should have lost. To select out of a score or more brilliant games, one or two which happen to be unsound and exhibit them as samples of the Prince's skill is not exactly right but, unfortunately there is no penalty for it.
Tschigorin also relates that last year when visiting the Kiev Chess Club, he was invited by the Prince, but could not accept. These are about all the facts known, and even if added- as is alleged to be the case, - that at Kiev in a theatre or a circus Tschigorin passed by the Prince, without taking any notice of him, - the crimes committed would possibly warrant his not being invited to the dinner given, but surely not an exclusion from the Tournament.
Some of the experts have seen translations of Tschigorin's column, and the prevailing opinion is, that his criticism is severe and pointed. It is not unlikely that some of the Prince's games, - admired as they are everywhere, caused some envy, and Tschigorin probably attempted to minimize their value. If there was a flaw in them, the shortcoming was quickly exposed, what action he took regarding the other contests is not known, but it is surmised that he gave some hints, indicating that such games may not have been actually played, the opponents being unknown, perhaps non-existent, etc. Endeavoring to belittle the Prince's attainment, he might have unjustly upheld him to ridicule and contempt.
Unsubstantiated gossip as this is, it is placed before the reader, so as to form a strong case against Tschigorin having done so, the writer wishes to state that his sympathy is altogether with the Russian master, who without trial or hearing of any kind was unceremoniously excluded from a competition to which he was specially invited.
Tschigorin was indemnified to the sum of 1500 frcs., which is more than the third prized amounted to, and that the incident did not hurt him otherwise, is proved by the fact that the Vienna Chess Club promptly invited him to participate in the coming contest.

From Novoe Vremya February 25 (March 10th), 1903, pg.3

The chess tournament at Monte Carlo was marred by an incident unpleasant even to those Russians who have never played chess in their lives. For Russian chess players especially the incident is extremely insulting: the Russian champion M. I. Chigorin arrived at the tournament after repeated invitations of the highest degree of courteousness from the organizing committee, which was compelled to deny him participation in the tournament due to the fact that the president of the tournament, Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, had declared:
“It is either he, that is Mr. Chigorin, or I, we are not participating together.”
And the committee organizing the tournament, it is better to say the gambling casino, had given money to the prizes and then granted control of everything to the “Juge Commissaire”, that is the organizer of the tournament, who, after rather considerable vacillation, sacrificed Chigorin. Naturally! Prince, son altesse serenissime etc.-all this has a dazzling effect on the crowd, so it is no wonder at all that both the casino and the organizer sacrificed the humble Russian Champion to a brilliant title.
But the president of the tournament, one must suppose, had some reasons for preventing Mr. Chigorin’s participation in the tournament? Probably he had them, but what exactly these reasons were is not well known.
Let us assume Prince Dadian loves playing chess and mating his opponents, but who really does not like to win in any game? Prince Dadian had described his games in the chess journal “Strategie”, praising himself very much and considering his combinations to be almost brilliant, but is all the rest of the chess world supposed to share this opinion? Let us assume M. I. Chigorin had dared to disapprove of a few of Prince Dadian’s games and on examining them in “Novoe Vremya”, even, - Oh, horror! -placed here and there some question marks(?), though it was done quite correctly, without mentioning anyone’s name, but simply using the opponent’s color in chess: “White”, “Black”. But perhaps this is the reason the champion had a scandal caused by his compatriot?
And, of course, at no other tournament anywhere, other than Monte Carlo, could something similar happen: here the tournament participants had no vote, rather for the aforementioned reasons everything was put under the control of the “Juge Commissaire” to whom Russian national pride and derisive rumors about how strangely the Russian president of the tournament caused a scandal for the Russian champion, were obviously rather minor matters. In any case, it also would have befitted the visiting president of the Monte Carlo tournament to behave in a tactful manner.
–Fyerz (Queen)

Note:  "Lashin," the author of the following two passages was probably Bobrov 1 who was the columnist for Moscovskie Viedemostie. These timely and apropos  reports appeared as part of a special series apparently entitled Among the Matadors of Chess Play and referred specifically to the Vienna Gambit tournament.


Moscovskie Viedemostie,  May 2, 1903

Among the Matadors of Chess Play

Before continuing my sketches of the goings on here at the International Chess Congress, I feel myself compelled not to pass over silently those of March of the current year of the strange actions of the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia in demanding the exclusion of Mr. Tschigorin from the Monte-Carlo tournament. The Prince Dadian of Mingrelia published some explanation of the incident, but not in a Russian publication as should have been expected due to the expression of bewilderment in Novoe Vremya but in the French journal La Stratégie. In this explanation there was brought forward against Mr. Tschigorin, first of all, the accusation that Mr. Tschigorin being at one time in Kiev, did not consider it necessary to appear at the "palace of the Prince" despite an invitation, and , secondly, that Mr. Tschigorin somehow, sometime, somewhere announced that apparently
he would not stand to participate in any tournament at which the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia appeared in the role as Honored President or simply President.

The first accusation caused immediate horror to a few of the naive participants of the Monaco tournament.
-What!-exclaimed one of them to Mr. Tschigorin, you were in Kiev and didn't appear at the palace of the Prince (in Monaco they take the Prince of Mingrelia for a real prince) and visiting his residence (that is Kiev) you didn't appear at his court?

The second main charge cannot sustain any sort of criticism, since it breaks up on the very fact of the arrival of Mr. Tschigorin at the Monaco tournament, despite the presidency of it by the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia.

The malice of the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia towards Mr. Tschigorin, leading towards this sad and unworthy incident in Monaco, and the latter's exclusion is explained solely by the displeasure of the Prince at the critical analysis by Mr. Tschigorin in Russian publications of a few of his games. How objective this analysis was evident from the fact that Mr. Tschigorin often did not refer to the Prince by name, presenting only the given position and analyzing it in a few words. And a few more words. In the explanation of the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, by the way, it is said, that Mr. Tschigorin was generously compensated for the material losses he incurred.

It is not quite so, as against this Mr. Tschigorin protested in a very determined manner. Mr. Tschigorin demanded satisfaction not from the Prince but from the tournament committee and from its organizer, Mr. Arnous de Rivière. He consequently, was only able to receive satisfaction from the tournament committee, but not at all from the Prince, after he threatened legal proceedings and spent almost two weeks in Monaco on this.



Moscovskie Viedemostie 28th of May 1903

Among the Matadors of Chess Play

The incident with Tschigorin at the last tournament at Monte-Carlo caused by the strange actions of the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia was, by the way, the topic of a discussion that took place at the just ended tournament during a meeting of the members of the International Union of Chess Masters (Internationaler Schachmeisters Bund). The trouble is that in the French journal La Stratégie there was published a notice that Mr. Tschigorin was barred from participating in the last Monte-Carlo tournament by decision of the "committee" in common with the participants of the tournament.

It goes without saying, of course, that this undoubted untruth was fabricated by Mr. Arnous de Rivière, who affectionately calls himself the "committee". Against this obvious falsehood the former participants of the Monte-Carlo tournament and members of the aforementioned Union resolved to protest in the name of the Union and instructed its secretary, Mr. Marco, in this point to send a refutation of these libels to the journal La Stratégie.

At this very meeting, by the way, there was also raised the question,-How, in view of the former generally unpleasant incidents at the tournaments in Monte-Carlo, to accept an invitation to the tournament there from its present impresario? Unfortunately, the Union only broached the question, not taking any sort of decision! And among those previous incidents at Monte-Carlo with Mr. Tschigorin, Dr. Tarrasch, Alapin,  etc. show that "something is rotten in the state of Denmark" and that it is necessary to take determined measures to guard the honor, dignity and personal interests of the chess matadors from the attempts by those on the side of an impresario disguising himself as a "committee"...



The following two articles show the British Chess Magazine's support of Dadian.


B. C. M., August, 1903.Pages 339-340



Dear Sir,
In your able report of the recent Monte Carlo Tournament, you allude to the incidents in connection with the contest, but they are not quite correctly stated. Having been away from town, at the Vienna Gambit Tournament. I have only now seen the B.C. M. for April, and as vice-president of the Monte Carlo Tournament , but more so in justice to the venerable manager of the tourney, M. Arnous de Rivière, and His Serene Highness Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, I consider it my duty to elucidate the incidents, to which you refer, by a clear statement of facts.

First of all, M. Janowski told M. de Rivière publicly, and with unnecessary animation, that “he would not take part in any tournament conducted by him”, consequently he could not have expected an invitation before withdrawing that statement. Moreover he announced at the Café de la Régence that he would not play, even if he were invited. Much as Janowski’s absence was regretted, it will be readily admitted that the first step of reconciliation should have been made by him.

As to the Tschigorin incident, the facts are: H. S. H. Prince Dadian of Mingrelia (president) did not threaten nor intimate “to withdraw his handsome prize”. The Prince had reason to be seriously offended in consequence of disparaging and libelous statements made by Tschigorin in the Russian press about the Prince not only as a chess player. In these circumstances the Prince did not desire to meet M. Tschigorin, and tendered his resignation as president of the tournament. Now there was the dilemma! The Prince had taken a deal of trouble about the success of the tournament, and journeyed from Russia to Monte Carlo to witness the play. But Tschigorin also journeyed from St. Petersburg to play in the tournament, and had a right to play, or to receive compensation. The Prince, therefore, offered to compensate him both for the prize which he might have won, and for expenses incurred. He gave 1500 francs, and as the second prize at Monte Carlo amounted to a little over 1100 francs, Tschigorin was amply compensated, and said so in the receipt which he gave when the money was handed over to him. Since then several statements have been made that the administration and not the Prince had paid the above amount to Tschigorin: this is not correct. The administration was not even cognizant of the incident- it was entirely a matter between Tschigorin, the Committee, and the Prince.

I shall be much obliged if you will kindly insert this letter in the B. C M. for the next month.
Faithfully yours,

1, St. James Square,
Holland Park, London W.,
8th July, 1903



B. C. M. August,1903.Pages340-341.

The Monte Carlo Tournament.- The letter which appears in our present issue over the signature of Mr. Leopold Hoffer, will be  read with interest by all who followed the progress of the recent contest at Monte Carlo. We have not personally seen the “disparaging and libelous statements made by Tschigorin in the Russian press”, but the action taken by His Serene Highness Prince Dadian indicates clearly that he was greatly offended at the conduct of Tschigorin, whom he had always previously treated with courtesy. The generosity which marked the Prince’s action, in compensating Tschigorin for actual and possible financial loss, was, in every sense of the term, the act of a Nobleman, whose generous support of the game ought at least to protect him from wanton criticism. The chess world cannot afford to lose such patrons as His Serene Highness Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, and no one should know this better than M. Tschigorin.

After the tournament -

Note by WilhelmThe2nd:

Later in the year (Sept. 1903), the 3rd All-Russian Championship took place in Kiev, Dadian's hometown. Dadian didn't offer any prizes in this tournament but did host some of the participants at his home (not Tschigorin, of course). A consultation game took place of Dadian & Schiffers vs. Yurevich & Lebedev. This is the game where Dadian wanted to make a crazy/unsound move and Schiffers was so annoyed about it he got up and left the table, or so the story goes. Of course, Dadian won the game brilliantly. There is an account in the Russian book by Grekov on Tschigorin (1949 ed.) by a local player who met Tschigorin at this tournament and talked with him and a few other players. As they are sitting and discussing chess, Dadian walks by with one of the other players and Tschigorin makes a sarcastic remark about their (the local players') 'sponsor', meaning Dadian. In a footnote the writer explains the likely scenario whereby Tschigorin and Dadian fell out (it is the same that Panov gives): one of Dadian's aides approached Tschigorin, while he was in Kiev in the Fall of 1902, with a generous offer of money for Tschigorin to lose to Dadian - which is rebuffed. Afterwards, Tschigorin published the game Yurevich-Lebedev from the tournament which won the brilliancy prize in his column. Tschigorin claims that the game was pre-arranged and that one of the players showed the game to him before it was played. Yurevich wrote a letter to Novoe Vremya saying that the game was real and that he intends to sue Tschigorin. Although it doesn't look like he followed up on the threat it is interesting that Yurevich was on fairly good terms with Dadian.

American Chess Bulletin, 1910. Page 269

"The death is reported from Kieff, Russia, of H.S.H. Prince Andre Dadian de Mingrelie, who was long known as one of the most ardent amateur chess enthusiasts and patrons. Chess literature contains many fine endings actually played by him over the board and others composed by him. The late prince was a staunch adherent of the old school of chess play and delighted in the Morphy-like brilliancies he was fond of creating. In his time, he broke a lance with every practitioner of note in Europe. An edition de luxe of a collection of positions from his MS. games was published by the late E. Schiffers for private circulation. Prince Dadian was the president of the international congress held at Monte Carlo in 1903, at which occurred the unpleasant incident between him and the late M. I. Tchigorin, Russian champion, which caused the latter to withdraw his entry after having appeared upon the scene ready for play."


 La Strategie, 1903: 

"Before the drawing of the pairings an incident occurred: H.S.H the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia who judged himself offended by articles published by Mr. Chigorin in some Russian journals, declared that he could not remain President if Mr. Chigorin  took part in the tournament, but that he would leave the committee and the other participants free to make a decision. After deliberation and with the assent of the participants, it was decided that Mr. Chigorin would not play, and an indemnity, which is to be fixed, will be remitted to him."(La Stratégie , page 51, 1903)

"H.S.H. the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia requests us to insert the following communication:
...............In the May journal of Mr. Bobrov, page 171, one reads: "La Stratégie says that Mr. Chigorin received from the Prince of Mingrelia a gift of 1,500 francs as compensation  and that this money was given by the Prince......Tchigorin protested in the most formal manner: he is said to have demanded compensation not from the Prince, but from the tournament committee and that he did receive it from the committee and not from the Prince."
There is a misunderstanding, it was my money that Mr. Chigorin received. I had decided to give 4,000 francs, but Messrs. de Rivière and Hoffer had told me that Mr. Chigorin demanded 1,500 francs, I immediately consented. Mr. de Rivière sent to me a receipt signed Mikhail Chigorin, in these terms "I the undersigned have received from Mr. Arnous de Rivière, from the account of M. the Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, president of the committee of the tournament of 1903 at Monte Carlo, the sum of fifteen hundred francs, that largely covers my expenses..."
As you said perfectly in La Stratégie, I would never have permitted Mr. Chigorin to sustain the least material damage...."(La Stratégie, page 180, 1903)
from David Yanovsky, "Fizkultura i sport" Publishers, 1987,  p.185. by Sergey Voronkov and Dmitry Plisetsky

   Chigorin undertook the journey from St. Petersburg, to experience something incredible: his fellow-countryman, Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, a well-known falsifier of “brilliant” games with little-known players, imagining himself for a few hundred francs to be a chess Maecenas, threatened to resign as president of the tournament committee, if Chigorin, who, according to rumor, once offended him, were to play. The managers, defending the interests of the gaming house, but not chess, excluded Chigorin from the list of participants.
   It seems, they were right protesting the tournament in Monte Carlo, where chess has become a servant of roulette.
-“Sport a Hry”, Feb. 1903

In places removed from either Russia, the Ukraine or areas frequented by Dadian, the prince was a somewhat mysterious character.

The Canadian periodical, Checkmate:A Monthly Chess Chronicle, wrote, perhaps tongue-in-cheek:

It was one of Anderssen's favorite jokes  (so his pupil Zukertort related) to express doubts whether the famous Russian chess player Petroff really existed. "Who ever saw him?" the Professor exclaimed. " All his published games are with persons unknown: he was invented by the Russians to give themselves a great master."
Similarly, one has heard playful doubts about the mysterious prince Dadian of Mingrelia, who publishes brilliancies against otherwise unknown performers at regular intervals. Can there be a syndicate for the production of Mingrelian games? But perhaps he is real: and the  courtiers around the Mingrelian throne (-where is Mingrelia?) are compelled to play weak moves until the proper sacrificial opportunity comes to their sovereign. "Ave, Caesar,mataturi [morituri] te salutant." A good composer of sui-mates should make his fortune in Mingrelia, and might become a court favorite."
- Vol.2, #6, March, 1903, pg.127

Then upon gradually learning the details from the Monte Carlo Tournament, followed up with

"Prince Dadian of Mingrelia has abundantly proved his reality. He is no myth,-but a very active, even formidable personage. If the extraordinary story told in the Field is correct, he will be reckoned among the Tyrants, - in fact chess-players will have to plan a revolution if the free worship of Caïssa is to continue. We are told that His Serene Highness on arriving at Monte Carlo declared that Tschigorin must be excluded from the tournament, on account of some alleged offensive references to the Prince in chess periodicals. In default of such an exclusion the Prince would resign his presidency and depart. And Tschigorin, the most distinguished player - with the exception of Tarrasch - from his long standing among masters, was ignominiously turned out!"
Vol.2,#7, April, 1903, pg.154


New York Times July 5, 1903


     Arnous de Riviere Issues a Statement Regarding
     Janowski, Alapin, and Tarrasch - Tschigorin's Position.

   Arnous de Riviere of Paris, manager of the annual masters' chess tournaments at Monte Carlo, has issued a statement. Janowski of France and Alapin of Russia were not even invited to the third tournament held in Monaco this year, as they were both under the ban of the Monte Carlo management, and that Tschigorin, the Russian champion, having accepted an invitation to play and journeyed all the way from St. Petersburg was excluded on account if ill-feeling between him and Prince Dadian of Mingrelia, President of the Chess Congress.
   At the conclusion of the tournament, when the Prince of Monaco offered a silver trophy to be competed for in a two days' contest, and the management provided 1,400f. to supplement that prize, Dr. Tarrasch, the first prize winner, demanded on the part of the competitors, that at least 3,000f. should be put up. The committee thereupon decided not to hold the proposed contest, and instead presented the Monaco Cup to Pillsbury as second prize winner in the big event. This action elicited severe condemnation from Dr. Tarrasch. It has been taken for granted that in consequence of these occurrences, Janowski, Alapin, Tschigorin, and Tarrasch would not henceforth be asked to compete at Monte Carlo.
   M. de Riviere, however states that this is not the case and intimates that all the blame has been placed upon his shoulders when he had been acting merely for and on instructions from his committee of which Prince Dadian of Mingrelia ad Leopold Hoffer of London were members . He says of other things:
   "I see only one means of satisfying the future competitors, that is, to reduce their number. My power has somewhat narrow limits. When I made a choice for the constitution of a committee I must submit to its decision as long as they are not opposed to the ideas of the Cercle des Etrangers of which I am the delegated Commissary Judge. This is why, to my great regret, I have seen Tschigorin out of the competition: he knows very well that I have done everything possible to bring about a reconciliation. If there is a tournament next year, M. Janowski will probably be invited to enter his name, and also Dr. Tarrasch. As to M. Alapin, I shall be very much disposed to admit him the day that the administration will authorize me to do so.
   Alapin, it should be added, brought suit against the Casino management in connection with the Salta tournament held there three years ago and forced a settlement. M. de Riviere does not refer to Tschigorin or the likelihood of his playing hereafter, and the presumption is that the breach between him and Prince Dadian is past healing.


1. It would be fair to add the following concerning the identity of Bobrov:

In Genna Sosonko's book, The Reliable Past, I came across a passage (I believe it was originally published in New in Chess, 1961):
"A couple of months before this, the editor-in-chief of 64, Alexander Borisovich Roshal, had achieved ths chess number in terms of years. Roshal has been working in the magazine for more than thirty years, since the time when it was founded, and the young staff are convinced that under the pseudonym Bobrov, Roshal published the magazine Shakhmatnoe obozrenie back at the start of the last century."