Morphy's only known problem.
Ernest Morphy sent it, along with a game, to the New York
Clipper on June 10, 1856.
The problem was published in the June 28, 1856 issue.
Sam Lloyd also published the problem in the New York Musical
World, April 30, 1859, along with Louis Paulsen's only chess problem.
Morphy's problem is often called his "alleged" problem probably
because according to Philip W. Sergeant in Morphy's Games of Chess:
That's probably the source of it's "alleged" status. Lawson,
apparently, did better research, as shown above, and the problem is definitely
"Mr. A. C. White says of the above, in The White Rook,
that he cannot trace it further back than 1888, when Lehrner, editor of the
Lesehalle, referred to it as the only problem composed by Morphy. Mr. White
adds, 'Seeing the wonderfully subtle mates which Morphy was able to announce in
his actual games, the production, if genuine, is also disappointing."
Ernest Morphy sent this letter to Kieseritsky, then editor
of La Régence
It was published in the January 1851 issue -
"I send you, herewith, a game of chess played on the 28th
instant between Mr. R. [Eugene Rousseau] and the young Paul Morphy, my
nephew, who is only twelve. This child has never opened
a work on chess; he has learnt the game himself by following
the parties played between members of his family. In the
openings he makes the right moves as if by inspiration; and
it is astonishing to note the precision of his calculations in the
middle and end game. When seated before the chessboard,
his face betrays no agitation even in the most critical position;
in such cases he generally whistles an air through his teeth and
patiently seeks for the combination to get him out of trouble.
Further, he plays three or four severe enough games every
Sunday (the only day on which his father allows him to play)
without showing the least fatigue."
the game sent:
[Event "casual game"]
[Site "New Orleans"]
[White "Paul Morphy"]
[Black "Eugene Rousseau"]
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 f5 4.d3 Nf6 5.O-O d6 6.Ng5 d5 7.exd5 Nxd5 8.Nc3 Nce7
9.Qf3 c6 10.Nce4 fxe4 11.Qf7+ Kd7 12.Qe6+ Kc7 13.Qxe5+ Qd6 14.Qxd6+ Kxd6 15.Nf7+ Ke6
16.Nxh8 exd3 17.cxd3 Kf6 18.b4 Be6 19.Re1 Bg8 20.Bb2+ Kg5 21.Re5+ Kh6 22.Bc1+ g5 23.Rxg5