THE LIFE AND CHESS OF PAUL MORPHY                                                                                                                                                                                Paul Morphy's contenders

This index of players was based originally on that from Philip Sergeant's Morphy's Games of Chess. Many of the biographical notes are from that book. Other players are from various sources. Those with more in-depth biographies are hyperlinked.

Anderssen, Adolf  
Arnold, Alexander B., M.D. A rather minor amateur Morphy defeated in Baltimore, November 1859. However Dr. A .B. Arnold was a moderately celebrated physician. He was born near Stuttgart, Germany, in 1820. His family emigrated to the US and his father, James Arnold, was a merchant, first in PA and later in Baltimore. Arnold was licensed to practice medicine in 1848 having studied first at the College of Mercersburg, PA, the Pennsylvania University and finally at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He practiced medicine (and played chess) in Baltimore until 1888. In 1875 he was appointed Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System for the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Baltimore and was chosen as  president of the section of general medicine of the Ninth International Medical Congress, Washington, DC in 1887. He published a treatise, Diseases of the Nervous System. Around 1890 he moved to San Francisco taking a position on the staff of the San Francisco Polyclinic.
Arnous de Rivière, Jules born in Nantes, 1830; one of Morphy's most ardent admirers and most frequent opponents in Europe (the usually accepted record showing the score: Morphy 18, Rivière 6, drawn 2 - though Rivière himself, La Strategie, November 1880, claimed five wins against Morphy's 10); his most notable achievement later was the defeat of Tchigorin, 1885 (5-4-1); a prolific chess-writer and editor; died 1905.
Avery, Thomas Thomas Avery was born in Birmingham, where he spent nearly al his life, in 1813 and died in 1894. He owned a business W. and  T. Avery, scale-makers, was Alderman of Birmingham from 1862-1892, and president of the Birmingham Chess Club; for nearly 50 years was a tower of strength to Birmingham and Midland chess; drew not only with Morphy, but also with Staunton and Steinitz during their visits to Birmingham.
Ayers, Dr.  
Barnes, Thomas Wilson According to Philip W. Sergeant:
Thomas Wilson Barnes, born in 1825; for a long time one of the strongest members of St. George's Club; had the best record of any English player against Morphy, there being 8 wins to his credit against 19 losses; 7th London 1862, next to Steinitz and above the young Blackburne. He died in 1874.

According to David Lawson:
informal match:  Morphy 19- Barnes 7
Blindfold simul at St. George's Club on April 20, 1859 - Morphy 1/2 - Barnes 1/2
Simul at St. Jame's Club on April 26, 1859 Morphy 0 - Barnes 1

Bird, H. E. born in London, 1830; an international tournament player from 1851 to 1899 and one of the most prominent figures in London chess circles for the greater part of that time; scored 6-7-6 before resigning a match against Steinitz, 1867; a voluminous and amusing writer on the game. Bird died in 1908.
Boden, Samuel Standidge born in Hull, 1826; considered by Morphy the strongest of his English opponents and by Steinitz as probably the strongest player Morphy met outside of his matches; 2nd prizes Manchester 1857 and Bristol 1861; chess editor of the Field, 1858-73. He died in 1882
Bonford, P. E. very  likely Pierre Emile Bonford, Louisiana Associate Supreme Court Justice; born in 1820 and was a delegate from the Orleans parish of New Orleans, voting for secession. He married Viginian L. Thompson on 1/25/1847; was an attorney for the firm Bonford & Finney located upstairs at 89 Gravier; from 1855-1859, served on the Board of Administrators of Tulane University. He served as aide-de-camp in the Confederate Army for Gen. R. Taylor with the rank of Lt. from 3/31/62 - 3/1/64 . And he was also a member of the N. O. Chess and Whist Club. He died in Alexandria 08/17/1864.
Bornemann, H.  
Bottin, A.  
Bousserolles, A.  
Brunswick, Charles, Duke of  
Budzinsky, J.  
Capdevielle, P.                                                                                                                              

Probably Paul Capdevielle 1844-1922. Mayor of New Orleans, 1900-1904

It's been pointed out that, if this opponent, this Paul Capdevielle, is the same Paul Capdevielle shown above, he also took part in a Morphy blindfold simul when he [Capdevielle] was only 13.
No other Paul Capdevielle shows up in the New Orleans birth or death records.

Carr, George Shoobridge Secretary of Lexington Chess Club; part-founder of the Birmingham Chess Club.
According to the BSHM (The British Society for the History of Mathematics) Gazetteer : 
"George Shoobridge Carr (1837-??), author of A synopsis of elementary results in pure and applied mathematics (1880 & 1886), was a private tutor in London and decided to get further education. He entered Caius in 1875, receiving his BA in 1880 and MA in 1883(?).
Cattley, H. G.  
Chamoullet one of the regular frequenters of the Café de la Régence , and a chess player for 60 years; played much with La Bourdonnais at Rook odds; one of the Paris correspondence team vs. London, 1834-36. Died at age 90 in 1873.
Cheney, G. George Nelson Cheney, problemist from New York. Died at First Manassass
Cremorne, Lord Richard (Dawson), 3rd Baron Cremorne of Castle Dawson, Ireland; born in 1817; succeeded his father in 1827; created Earl of Dartrey in 1866; Lord Cremorne was president of the St. George's Chess Club. He died in 1897.
According to the 1897 edition of American Ches Magazine: "Lord Cremorne, Earl of Dartrey, born in 1817, was for many years connected with St. George's Chess Club, and was, in fact, the president of the club up to the time of his death. He was above the average as a player, especially in his younger days, when, as Lord Cremorne, he at different times played with nearly all the great masters, including Morphy, Kolisch and Steinitz. With Blackburne he played only two games, on level terms, of which he won one and lost one. During the great London tournament of 1883 Lord Dartrey entertained a number of the competitors at dinner at his home in Curzon Street, Mayfair. His death will be generally regretted by all chess players who had the pleasure and honor of the late earl's acquaintance."
Delannoy, Alphonse born in Evreaux in 1806; part-conductor, in turn, of Le Palemède, La Régence, La Nouvelle Régence, and La Stratègie;     prolific writer on chess matters not only in France but in England and the U. S.; He died in 1883. A caution must be given that not all of Delannoy's amusing reminiscences of Morphy can be treated as history. See B. C. M. vol. 1, where Mr. John Watkinson demolishes some of them.
Devinck, François Charles born in 1801; a successful chocolate-maker; many times president of the Paris Chamber of Commerce; Deputy; died in 1878; the last survivor of the group watching the Staunton-St. Amant match in the picture published in 1844. A keen chess player, he is said to have ranked both La Bourdonnais and Deschapelles higher than Morphy.
Dominguez, Placido  
Ehrmann, August born in Strassburg, 1786; a well known frequenter of the Régence.died in 1876; is known to have given Morphy a dinner in March, 1859.
Elkin, Lewis  
F. de l'A. According to Sergeant's Morphy's Games of Chess,   F de l'A consulted with Saint-Amant in a game against Morphy in Paris, November 1858
Later, in  Morphy Gleanings, Sergeant wrote:
"P. 150, Game LXXX. 'Bell's Life in London' gives initials of St. Amant's partner as ' B' "

Edge relates Mophy's association with la Baronne F. de L., "A Creole, from the French West Indies...This lady, who has long ranked as one of the great beauties of Parisian society, is renowned as a patroness of the arts. Her friendship for the lamented Pradier has passed into history, and her salons" are the weekly resort of the most celebrated sculptors, painters, and authors of France....She would get Morphy opposite her, and St. Amant or Lequesne by her side to stop her when she was about making too serious a mistake, and would play game after game, making us all laugh the whole time with her charming anecdotes and jeux d'esprit."

Edge also credits la Baronne with Saint Amant's comeback against Staunton in the 1843 match. He wrote ".... she had no easy task instilling courage into her countryman..."

Fiske, Daniel Willard born in 1833 and died in 1904. He was a strong chess player who helped organize the First American Chess Congress. He was a Scandinavian scholar by profession, educated at Upsala and Copenhagen but was also editor of the Chess Monthly while Morphy worked as co-editor. He wrote several books about chess with insights into Morphy. His letters to Morphy, Maurian and to others concerning Morphy are also quite revealing.
Forde, Dr. A.  
Freeman, Dr. Jabez Secretary of the Birmingham Chess Club.
Fuller, William James (W. J. A.) Chess editor of Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, born in London in 1822
Golmayo, Celso born in Logrono, Spain in 1841; 7th prize, Paris, 1867; settled in Cuba definitely in 1868 and did much for chess on the island; lost a match to Blackburne (3-5-2) in 1891; died in 1898.
Greenaway a well known London player, several of whose games can be found in the Chess Player's Chronicles.
Guilbert one of the strongest Paris amateurs; died in 1878.
Hammond, George A Boston player, once New England champion.
Hampton, T. I. Thomas Inglis Hampton, secretary of St. George's Club, 1856-75; treasurer of B. C. A.; died in Dover 1875 at age 69.
Harrwitz, Daniel  
Hay, Lord Arthur born in 1824; entered the army in 1841, served through Sutej and Crimean campaigns and retired with the rank of Colonel in 1860; in 1876 he became the 9th Marquessof Tweeddale in succession to his father; president of the Royal Zoological Society and a well-known ornithologist, he died in 1878.
Isouard de Vauvenargue  
Jansen, J. (Sergeant)
Janssens, Franciscus G. (likely)
born in 1822 in Belgium  -  died on Dec. 12, 1881
Jefferson, B. T.  
Jones, J. P.  
Journaud, Paul born in 1821; a well known frequenter of the Régence; edited in succession, La Régence, La Nouvelle Régence, Le Palemède and Le Sphinx, and (for over 20 years) the Monde Illustré column; he died in 1882
Julien, Denis born in France in 1806; settled in N. Y. in 1845; in 1852 founded the St. Denis Hotel, Broadway, a popular chess resort; known both as a player and a problem-composer; died in 1868
Kennedy, Capt. H. A. born in 1809; Vice-president of the B. C. A. and official of various chess clubs, Brighton, Bristol, etc.; contributor to chess magazines (in a light vein) and to Punch; he died in 1874
Kennicott, Hiram  
Kipping, J. S.

J. S. Kipping - 1822-1899 - secretary of the Manchester Chess Club. In 1857 he was on the English team with Staunton and Boden that played a consultation game played in Manchester against Anderssen, Horwitz and Kling.

Knight, T.  
Knott, Hubert  
La Roche, Dr. H.  
Le Carp  
LeCarpentier, Charles  
Lesquesne, Eugene celebrated sculptor; born in Paris in 1815; his bust of Morphy is reproduced in both Préti's and Maroczy's books on Morphy.
Lewis, Dr. Samuel  
Lichtenhein, Theodor(e) born in Königsberg, Prussia, 1829; moved to New York in his early years. He was president of the New York Chess Club in 1858. He died 1874
Löwenthal, Johann Jakob  
Lyttleton, Lord 4th Baron Lyttelton of Frankley, George William Lyttelton -  born in Westminster, London March 31,1817; died in Marylebone, London April 19,1876 - was considered  a fine scholar who earned his B.A. at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1838 where he played cricket. He did important work in educational and poor law reform. He was Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies during Peel's last administration. He  was the brother-in-law of William Ewart Gladstone and married Mary Glynne with whom he had eight sons. He was president of the British Chess Association.
McConnell, James born in Louisiana 1829; described in the New Orleans Times Democrat in 1884 as "that veteran of New Orleans, indeed Southern chess"; died in 1894.
Marache, Napoleon born in 1815; died in 1875 - helped found the chess periodical, The Chess Palladium and Mathematical Sphinx in 1846 and Wrote a book entitled, Marache's Manual  of Chess in 1866.
Was the chess editor of Wilkes' Spirit of the Times.
Maude, P.  
Maurian, Charles Amédée Paul Morphy's closest and life-long friend, was born on May 21, 1838. He learned chess in college from Morphy himself and continued to play against Morphy until near the end of Morphy's life at ever decreasing odds. While he never played in any organized tournaments,  he acquitted himself competently in even, casual games  against some of the greatest players of the era: Mackenzie, Steinitz, Tchigorin, Zuckertort and many others. After Morphy left for Europe in 1858, Maurian was the strongest player in the New Orleans Chess Club. From 1858-1860 he edited the chess column in the New Orleans Delta and from 1883 until moving to Paris in 1890 he co-edited the chess column in the Times-Democrat. He died on December 2, 1912.
Mead, Colonel Charles Dillingham born in New York, 1814; President of the New York Chess Club; died in 1876.
Medina, Aureliano  
Medley, George Webb secretary of the London Chess Club; for some years Honorary Secretary of  B. C. A.; died Dec., 1898. Medley deserves great credit as the principal mover in the introduction of a time-limit for chess.
Meek, Judge A. B. President of the American Chess Congress (whom Morphy won six games against in 1854 at age 17)
Meunier, J.  
Michaelis, Otho E. According to Sergeant: Otto E. Michaelis was born in Germany on August 3, 1843. He took first prize at Franklin, Chess Club in Philadelphia, 1884. He served as a Major in the U.S. Army and, in a letter from the U.S. War Department to N. T. Whitaker, his first name is given as Otho.
He played apparently four games with Morphy when he was  16 . Two of the scores have survived. Of these, he won 1. He lost both of the missing games.
Mongredien, Augustus  
Montgomery, Hardman Philips a  Philadelphia lawyer and member of the Philadelphia Chess Club. Born September 25, 1834, one of eight children of John Crathorne  Montgomery and Elizabeth Henrietta Phillips; died January 22, 1870.
Morphy, Alonzo Paul Morphy's father
Morphy, Ernest Paul Morphy's uncle
Napoleon de Santos, Arthur Arthur Napoleao dos Santos (1843-1925) a celebrated Brazilian pianist living in America. A fine problemist and a collector of chess literature, leaving a rather large library when he died.
Owen, Rev. John (Alter) born in Shaffordshire in 1827; educated at Repton and Trintity, Cambridge; ordained 1851; vicar of Hooton, Cheshire, 1862-1900; died 1901.
Paulsen, Louis arrived from Germany in 1854 along with his older brother Wilfried and worked as a tobacco broker. He was a relatively unknown player at the time of the Congress but won second place, gave several blindfold demonstrations, and although having publicly proclaimed that he would in fact win the tournament, afterwards praised Morphy's skills as such he considered Morphy's challenge to play any American at odds of a pawn and a move reasonable, even against himself. Paulsen later became one of the strongest player's in the world and a leading theorist. He won second place in London, 1862 and first place at Leipzig, 1877. He also won two matches against Adolph Anderssen between 1876 and 1877.
Perrin, Alphonse  
Perrin, Frederick secretary of the N.Y. Chess Club. Born in London in 1816. Of Swiss ancestry, he moved to the U.S. in 1845. He died in 1889.
Pindar, E. Edward Pindar, champion of the Manchester (England) Chess Club
Préti, Jean Louis born in Mantua 1798; went to Bordeaux 1826, to escape Austrian rule, and, being an expert flute player, became a musical professor at the Royal College there.; abandoned musical teaching through ill-health, and moved to Paris 1844; took to chess professionally; 1st,  Régence tournament 1862; founded La Stratégie in 1867 and edited it until his death in 1881.
Raphael, Dr. B. I. born in Virginia in 1818, played as a representative of Kentucky, died in 1880.
Rhodes, John born in Leeds in 1814; member of the Leeds Chess Club 1834-1898; acquainted with Buckle, Walker, Staunton, St. Amant, etc.; died in 1898.
Richardson, Dr. Horace  
Rousseau, Eugene born in France but settled in New Orleans where he had a reputation of being a very strong player. In Paris he is said to have lost by a very small balance only in over 100 games with Kieseritzky. Later, in 1867, he competed in the Paris tournament but took last place though winning games against Winawer and Rivière.
Saint-Amant, Pierre Charles Fournier de  
St. Leon, Chevalier  
Salmon, Rev. George born in Dublin in 1819; mathematical gold medalist and Fellow of Trinity College; D. D. 1859; Provost 1888; early reputed the strongest player in Ireland, but made few public appearances; knocked out by Owen in the 2nd round, Birmingham 1858; died in 1904.
Schulten, John W. an American but a constant visitor to Paris and well known at the Régence where he played La Bourdonnais, St. Amant and all the experts; retired to Berlin 1872 and died in 1875.
Seguin born in 1809; died in 1887.
Sicre, Felix  
Sicre, Jose Maria  
Slous, Frederick Loke born in 1802; in his youth so fine a player that in the opinion of his friend, George Walker, he would have been stronger than Staunton had not ill-health made him give up serious play; Chairman of the Stock Exchange; died 1892. [Sergeant]

Slous wrote Stray Leaves from the Scrape-Book of an Awkward Man published first in 1844, revised and reprinted in 1881. According to Garrett Scott Bookseller:

An entertaining miscellany of verse, sketches and fiction from this man of letters who was president of the London Stock Exchange and (for a time) one of England's best chess players. The verses here include an account in heroic couplets of a chess game by Gioachino Greco (the seventeen moves are given in the footnotes--the game appears to this inexpert cataloguer a variation on the Giuoco Piano), as well as bald prose account of two postal chess games played between 1847 and 1849. Slous ranges beyond chess over such subjects as glaciers, at least one proto-detective story, and a supernatural story (first published in 1860 in Once a Week) that involves a wager in a cribbage game against a fiend.

Smyth, Samuel  
Stanley, Charles Henry a strong American player; organized and participated in and won the first US championship, Stanley vs. Rousseau in 1845 with $1,000 purse. He was the creator of the first American chess column in THE SPIRIT OF THE TIMES, NY(1845); the first US chess publication, "AMERICAN CHESS MAGAZINE"(1846); published the 1st US book on a chess match, "31 GAMES OF CHESS" in 1846. His wife named their daughter Pauline after Paul Morphy
Staunton, Howard  
Stone, R.  
Thomas, W. G.  
Thompson, James born in 1808 an Englishman, emigrated to the US in 1815. In his two visits to Europe in 1840 and 1850, he played about 100 games, winning the majority. He owned a restaurant in N.Y., the Epicures, and also helped advertise the tournament. He felt he was superior to Saint-Amant and equal to Morphy. He was probably neither. Thompson often tried to win his games through intimidation both with unsound combinations and with verbal disparagements. He was considered an expert on the Evans Gambit.
Thrupp, J.  
Tilghman, B. C.  
Walker, George  
Ware, G. P. G. Preston Ware, Jr. -born, Aug 12, 1821 in Wrentham, MA - died,  Jan. 29, 1890 in Boston. MA
Invented the Ware Gambit and, along with Henry Nathan Stone, the Stone-Ware Defense.
Was one-time president of the American Chess Foundation and played in the US Championship tournament (the 5th American Chess Congress of 1880) were he admitted accepting a $20 bribe to draw a game with  James Glover Grundy.
Wills, William Ridout Honorary Secretary B. C. A. and one of the organizers of the Birmingham Meeting.
Worrall, Thomas Herbert British Commissioner in Mexico (1807-1878); his wife, Mrs. Harriet Jona Worrall (1836–1928)  was also a chess player.
Worrall first encountered Morphy in New Orleans, 1858, when he appeared as a strong player from Mexico; Morphy then conceded him odds of Queen's Knight, as he did also during his second visit to London.